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FEWER and LESS are confusing words and misuse of the terms will set off alarms in the heads of many language enthusiasts. 

"If fewer people used disposable water bottles, there would be less plastic in landfills."

Fewer means "not as many." It is used with count nouns like cookies, M&Ms, puppies, glasses of water, potatoes, etc.

"I'm drinking less beer and smoking fewer cigarettes."

Less means "not as much." It is used with uncount nouns like milk, love, candy, water, potato salad, etc.

"It's a better job but they pay you less money."

Most often, it doesn't take a rocket scientist to deduce whether a noun is count or uncount, thus the decision between the terms will be an effortless one. If you can count it, go for fewer. If you can't, opt for less.

"My new furniture leaves me with less space for yoga practice."

"Less" is also used with verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

"It hurts much less now."
"I'm a bit less excited about the whole thing than I used to be."
"He runs less quickly than you."

In informal usage, "(no) less than" is common with plural nouns, even though fewer would be the formally correct choice.

"No less than 300 people showed up for the concert."
"To put less than two shots of whisky in a glass would be to diddle the customer."

In informal usage, "or less" is common where "fewer" would be the formally correct choice.

"Write a paragraph about an environmental issue in 200 words or less."

The use of "less" to modify plural count nouns, as in "make less mistakes", "less people available", "one less thing to worry about", etc. is avoided in writing. Write with fewer lesses, so to say. That said, it does occur frequently in speech. 

"My gf said we would have less arguments if I wasn't so pedantic. I said, 'FEWER ARGUMENTS'."

However, "less" is used with a range of plural count nouns that refer to quantities on a scale e.g. less than 3.25 points/degrees/euros and is perfectly idiomatic with:

1. expressions of time.

"Their marriage lasted less than two years."
"I can fix the roof in less than 12 hours."

Yet, depending on how general or specific your reference to time is, it may require the use of "fewer" sometimes.

 "The statute requires our response in not fewer than 10 or more than 20 days." 
"I wish I could spend fewer hours on household chores and more on watching TV."

2. sums of money.

"Rebecca has less than twenty dollars left in her checking account."

3. distance.

"We're less than 50 miles away."

4. weights. 

"Baby pandas weigh less than 200 grams at birth."

5. percentages of countable nouns. 

"I see you have eaten less than ten percent of your mashed potatoes."

With percentages of uncountable nouns we use "fewer".

"Fewer than eight percent of the world's people have blue eyes."

6. statistical enumerations.

 "Less than 50,000 people contracted the disease."

The opposite of both "less" and "fewer" is "more." There's no difference between countable and non-countable comparisons. 

"The Red Sox have more wins than the Royals do, and they have had more success as well."

One more note. When in doubt, go for "less". There are lots of educated native speakers who 
barely use "fewer" at all.

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