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MAY NOT, in its deontic sense, is the formal way not to permit something, often one's authoritative denying of permission. It generally means "permission is not given, end of story". 

"My mother said I may not go to the park."
"You may not leave the table until you are finished with your dinner."

May not in this meaning is quite formal, categorical and strict. In ordinary situations, if permission is not given, the verb can't is generally used.

"You may not eat in the conference room." (It is formally/strictly not allowed)
"You can't eat in the conference room." (More common way to say it is not allowed)

You might say "you may not" if you are the person deciding, but you normally say "you can't" to mean the rules don't allow it.

"You may not borrow the car until you can be more careful with it."
"Visitors cannot feed the animals, sir."

In spoken English, a request for permission is generally answered with can/can’t, rather than with may/may not, even if the question was formed using may. "No, you may not" sounds sharp, but "I'm afraid you can't/aren't allowed to" is just as polite as "May I..?"

A: "May I go to the mall tonight?" B: "No, I'm afraid you can't."

May not is much less common than can't. Many users find it oddly formal, old-fashioned and authoritarian. In some contexts, it can also be interpreted as a chance of something not happening along the lines of "might not."

"I may not go to the movies tonight."

"May not" is best avoided in writing, since it can be ambiguous between "must not" ("You may not enter") and "might not" ("You may not see any difference"). In spoken English, the former would tend to have the emphasis on "not" and the latter on "may" but this is lost in writing. 

"John may not read this comment" (could mean either that he's forbidden to read it or that it's possible he won't read it)

MAYN'T is dated. It is still possible to use this obscure contraction, but it sounds odd. This has become very rare in modern English, and generally only occurs in colloquial usage. 

“No, you mayn’t go to the dinner unaccompanied, young lady."

Microsoft Word doesn't even recognize mayn’t as a word. Most people are unaware of mayn't to being with, but for those who are, it is best to avoid it.

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