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Many English speakers pronounce the 'y' of 'my' either as schwa (a sound between meh and muh) or as the 'i' of 'miss'. This may be heard and interpreted as if they said 'me'. 

"Me mam said I should get oot of me house and gan doon the park on me bike."

'Me' used instead of 'my' is non-standard but extremely common in all varieties of colloquial BrE, esp. in English Midlands and Northern England, esp. in Liverpool and Newcastle. 

"Even in the south, you hear it so much that no one really notices it."

At least in England, this feature of pronunciation is common to speakers from all areas, all social classes and all levels of education, esp. when they are speaking informally, so you can imagine the Duke of Edinburgh saying:

"Just fallen off me damn horse!" 

Speakers are not confusing 'me' and 'my' as 'my' can be pronounced [mi: ~ mɪ ~ mɨ ~ mə] without the normal diphthong [mɑɪ] which you're used to hearing. Normally, the form is unstressed, as in 'Get your hands off me burger.' However, when the word is emphasized, the full form 'my' [mai] is usually used.

"That's MY burger not yours."

It's a lot easier to say "me" as it blends a lot easier into other words, esp. those beginning with "h" which can then be silenced: me ‘ouse/me ‘andbag/me 'orse, and the reduced variant is common before consonants: m'book/m'coat, etc.

"I use it all the time too, especially talking to me brother when he comes t' me 'owse." 

It's very informal though and a lot of people would recognize this informality and switch to the more formal/fancy "my" when deemed appropriate.

"I also use it all the time in speech. Not in writing though."

It is widespread in Irish English, but generally seen as highly colloquial verging on the uneducated. 

"I've always typed 'me' in sites like Facebook 'cause it's my natural pronunciation."

It's also an Australian thing esp. in some rural areas where the accent is true blue.

"There are folk in Australia who say 'me' for 'my'."

Using "me" instead of "my" is also a common way to caricature pirate speak, the archetypal Long John Silver thing. 

"Shiver me timbers, matey!/Avast, me hearties!/I'd drag me anchor through her lagoon! Arggh!"

Use of [i] for [ai] with possessive pronoun my; the difference in vowel between my horse (mai) and my horse (mi) was probably caused by the Middle English vowel shift, which changed stressed /i/ to a diphthong /ai/ but left unstressed /i/ unchanged. 

"Personally I use it all the time. I even catch myself writing it at times."

In about the 1400s/1500s, the sound of the long vowel changed, eventually becoming modern [mai]. But this sound change didn't affect short vowels, so [mi] remained as it was.

"I always say 'me mate' deliberately because it's a collocation, with 'mate' replacing 'friend' and pronounced more like 'mite'."

The use of 'me' for 'my' is not common in AmE, regardless of social class or education. 

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