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FANCY, as a verb, means to want something or want to do something; be attracted to somebody or like the idea of being something or believe, often wrongly, that you are something.

"She didn't fancy the idea of going home in the dark."
"He fancied himself in love with me, the silly boy."

As a verb 'fancy' enjoys far wider use in BrE and most commonly means to:

1. feel a desire or liking for. 

"I fancy that bloke!" (I like him and want things to go further between us)

Meaning 'take a romantic interest in someone' and used mostly by teenagers. 'I fancy her' could be translated as 'I want to go out with her, but I won't really take this relationship seriously, or expect it to last that long'. 

"I think she fancies me." (not a declaration of love though)

This expression does not directly translate to AmE and might sound a little coy to American ears. No one in the US would say they fancy a person unless they just got off the boat from the UK. Instead, they'd go for something like:

"I think Roy likes you, Darlene." 
"I think Trevor's got the hots for you, Gladys."

2. want something. 

"Do you fancy a drink?"
"We're going to the pub. Fancy joining us?" 

In BrE it is a verb of choice where Americans would probably use 'would like', 'want', 'care for' or 'feel like'.

"I don't feel like studying/want to study tonight."
"Would you like/care for a drink?/Do you feel like (having) a drink?"

3. imagine or think that something is so.

"Just fancy my surprise when I heard that he was getting married."

FANCY ONESELF (AS SOMETHING) means think that you are popular, talented, intelligent, etc. No reason to fancy yourself to be a great singer if you can't carry a tune. It is used both in AmE and BrE.

"That Dave really fancies himself as a macho man, doesn't he?"
"He started to chat to me and I could tell that he really fancied himself."

FANCY (THAT)! is an expression used to show that you are surprised or shocked by something and used to comment on something that is hard to imagine.

"Fancy! She's never been in a plane before!"
"She remembered my name after all those years. Fancy that!"

Although the OED marks this usage as 'becoming old-fashioned', in AmE the usage of 'fancy' as a verb is often restricted to the idiom 'fancy that'.

"Well, fancy that, a red coat and a black hat!"
"The baby she brought home was the wrong one! Fancy that!"

Overall, English learners should probably note that in AmE 'fancy':

1. is not normally used as a verb, meaning 'like or desire, as in 'Trevor fancies you Gladys' or 'Fancy a pint?'. 

"Americans almost never use 'fancy' as a verb at all."

2. if 'fancy' is found as a verb at all, it is in the sense of 'imagine'; think of or envision someone or oneself in a particular way or role or think you are very attractive or important. It's often used in a sarcastic manner.

"He fancied himself a super athlete."
"A small town that fancies itself the alfalfa capital of the world."

3. if used at all, is almost always marked in some way (poetic, archaic, affected, etc.), except for the usages mentioned above.

"To me, it sounds very effeminate."

All in all, it's an extremely well-known Britishism, so well known that anyone who wanted to fake a British accent would almost certainly throw in a 'fancy' into every sentence that they could. 

"It's very British. Americans rarely use 'fancy' this way."

In AmE, 'fancy' is usually an adjective used to describe an object, a place, or a person that is or appears to be upscale: a fancy restaurant/tie/car, etc. Read more right further down the GO FIGURE page if you fancy.

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