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UNTIL and TILL both mean up to the time of (a certain time or event) or not before (a certain time or event). Both are interchangeably used as a preposition or conjunction.

"Please stay here until I get back."
"Please don't talk to me till I'm off the phone."

If you do something until/till a particular time, you stop doing it at that time.

"We danced till dawn." (we stopped dancing when the sun began to rise)

If you want to emphasize that something does not stop before the time you mention, you can use UP UNTIL/TILL, or up to.

"Up until 1950 coal provided over 90% of our energy needs."

If something does not happen until/till a particular time, it does not happen before that time.

"She can't leave until Friday." (she where she is on Thursday but on Friday she goes somewhere else)

Until/till plus a date or a day includes that date or a day. If someone told you, 'I will be in the office until Thursday,' you would likely assume the person won't be in the office on Thursday. 

"I'll be out of the office till 17th May." (I'll be back on 17 May, but not before.)

However, sometimes it may appear to be ambiguous when you pair it with a deadline.

"The survey will be online for you to complete until May 1, 2019." (it might not appear to be quite certain that 'until May 1' includes May 1)

All in all, you may want to avoid using 'until' with a deadline or specific date if it's possible that someone will misunderstand you.

"You may fill out the survey from April 1 to/through May 1." 

If you are going on a business trip and are leaving a voice-mail greeting, instead of saying, 'I'll be away until May 6,' consider saying, 'I'll return on May 6.'

"I recently missed an important deadline because I thought that the word 'until' included the date mentioned!"

When until/till is followed by a period of time rather than a point of time, it is not specific whether or not the 'until' lasts into, or even to the end of, that period.

"I'm working here until next year." 
"He did not talk to me until a year later." (no conversation took place for approximately 365 days since the time in question)

If you do something until/till a particular time, you stop doing it at that time. We don't normally use until to talk about things that will happen before a particular time or deadline; we use 'by'.

"All applications must be received by Friday, 26 June 2009."

FROM is often used with until/till to say when something finishes and ends.

"The ticket office will be open from 10.00am until 1.00pm."
"They worked from dawn till dusk."

In sentences like these, you can use 'to' instead of until/till. Some AmE speakers also use 'through'.

"Open daily 10.00-17.00 from 23rd March to 3rd November."
"I was in college from 1985 through 1990."

It is used with the simple present tense or the present perfect.

"I'll wait until I hear/have heard from you."

When you are talking about past events, you use the past simple or the past perfect in the subordinate clause.

"The plan remained secret until it was exposed by the press."
"He continued watching until I had driven off in my car."

Until and till both show time. They cannot be used to talk about distance. Instead we use 'to', 'as far as' or 'up to'.

"We walked as far as the edge of the forest." (NOT until the edge of the forest)

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