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'Chicken', 'hen', 'pullet', etc.— probably no other bird has so many different names and it can be very confusing for English learners. 

"Hen is the female, rooster is the male, and chick refers to the younglings of either sex."

A CHICKEN (Gallus gallus) refers generally to a type of domestic fowl we all know so well. It is genderless and can be applied to any ages.

"There are more chickens in the world than any other bird or domesticated fowl."

You can talk about your pet chicken with its brown feathers and funny feet, but you might also use the word chicken to order dinner at a restaurant.

"I'll have the chicken."

When a person is described as a chicken, it means they are easily scared or a coward.

"Max is nothing but a chicken."

When someone says, 'Chickens come home to roost,' they mean that bad actions eventually have bad consequences. And if you rule the roost, you're in charge.

"For years he avoided paying tax. Now his chickens have come home to roost and he's got a tax bill of $25 000."

A CHICK is a baby bird, esp. a just-hatched chicken. 

"The chicks were small, yellow, and fluffy."

Chick can describe most young birds, from an eagle chick to a flamingo chick, or be used more generally.

"Dogs aren't allowed on the beach because of the nesting seabirds and their chicks." 

It's also long been an informal term for a young woman.

"Did you see that chick? She waved at me."

Chick is not necessarily derogatory, however many women find it offensive because of its flippant nature.

"I'm going to marry that chick. She is so smart and beautiful and full of life."

A PULLET is a female chick, usually less than a year old.

'Pullets are in their prime at eight months."

The term is also used for flesh of a medium-sized young chicken suitable for frying.

"We have the roast pullet and salad for dinner."

A HEN or LAYER is a fully mature female chicken that can lay eggs. 

"A laying hen in her prime will lay a dozen eggs in about two weeks."

It's important to make sure your new backyard chickens are hens and not roosters — otherwise, those eggs you're looking forward to just aren't going to happen.

"'Going broody' is what a hen does when it’s time to hatch some eggs."

'Hen' is used for the female of many birds, including turkeys, pheasants, and quail, as well as for a female lobster. 

In parts of Britain, a hen can also be a (slightly offensive) slang term for a woman, and if something's described as being 'rare as hen's teeth,' it's extremely precious or scarce.

"When the hen grows teeth, the frog grows hair and the crawfish whistles on the mountain."

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